What are Mold Fine Particulates?
The discovery of Mold Fine Particulates or (1-----≥3) - β- D- Beta Glucans and their ability to cause inflammation and adverse human health effects is one of the single most important medical discoveries regarding Mold Exposure and Mold Sickness in the history of the science.
If left untreated infections created by Mold Fine Particulates can become very serious, and have been documented as a direct cause of disease and death in human beings. The fine particulates produced by mold have now been medically labeled as more dangerous to human health than mold spores themselves. There are eleven species of Fungi that have been labeled as “Pathogenic”, or are known to cause disease in the human body. These Pathogenic Fungi can cause severe invasive fungal infections (IFI) in broad range of people exposed to them.
Persons that are in the greatest category of risk for IFI are:
· Expectant Mothers
· Children under the age of fifteen (15)
· Persons over the age of fifty eight (58)
· Persons whom have suffered from Cancer / Cancer Treatment
· Burn Victims
· Persons diagnosed as “Immuno-Compromised”, or “Immuno-Suppressed”
· ARC related illnesses
· HIV Positive
· Cirrhosis of the liver
· Liver disorders / disease
· Kidney disorders / disease
· Persons with Asthma
· Persons with COPD
· Persons on, or having been on Steroid therapy
· Stroke victims
· Heart attack victims
Note* Persons whom are athletic may also be at higher risk as they are active and may breath Fine Particulates deeper into their lungs during time of physical exertion.
Most mold spores range three to five microns in size, some species can be smaller. Mold Fine Particulates range from 2.5 microns, to 2,500 nanometers or less in size. These particulates are so small many are the same size as gas molecules, which means they may be inhaled and absorbed directly into the human body and blood stream, by passing all of the body’s natural filter mechanisms.
Symptoms of Fine Particulate Exposure, or Invasive Fungal Infection:
· Blurred Vision
· Nose Bleeds
· Memory Loss
· Low Grade Fever
· Skin Rashes or Lesions
· Chronic Sinusitis - Bronchitis
Other Facts About Fine Particulate Pathogenic Fungi
Candida is the fourth most common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the United States. Three quarters of women experience vaginitis in their lifetime, and 30% of vaginitis is caused by Candida. Vaginitis accounts for 10 million office visits per year.
Invasive candidiasis is the most common invasive fungal infection in the United States. There is an increasing shift toward infections caused by non-albicans Candida species with 40-60% of the species currently being reported as non-albicans species.
Invasive candidiasis has a mortality rate of 40-50%, with an estimated cost of $40,000 per episode. Neonates and children have better outcomes with approximately 20% mortality rate for candidemia. Risk factors for death or poor prognosis are age, failure to remove central lines, malnutrition, and non-albicans fungemia.
Aspergillus Fine Particulate
There are more than 165 species of Aspergillus, of which over half have been documented to cause human disease. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger are the most common invasive and noninvasive species.
The most common pathogens are from Aspergillus and Mucor species. Aspergillosis can cause noninvasive or invasive infections. Invasive infections are characterized by dark, thick, greasy material found in the sinuses. Invasive infections can cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (eg, orbit, CNS). Noninvasive infections cause symptoms of sinusitis, and the sinus involved is opacified on radiographic studies. Routine cultures from the sinuses rarely demonstrate the fungus. However, the fungus is usually suspected upon reviewing the CT scan result and is detected on removal of the secretions from the sinus. The more serious infection commonly occurs in patients with diabetes or in individuals who are immunocompromised and is characterized by its invasiveness, tissue destruction, and rapid onset. Early detection and treatment are vital for these infections because of the high mortality rate. Noninvasive infections are chronic and are usually treated for extended periods as chronic sinusitis before the condition is recognized.
Acute invasive fungal sinusitis results from a rapid spread of fungi through vascular invasion into the orbit and CNS. It is common in patients with diabetes and in patients who are immunocompromised and has been reported in immunocompetent individuals. Typically, patients with acute invasive sinusitis are severely ill with fever, cough, nasal discharge, headache, and mental status changes. They usually require hospitalization.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and the Journals of American Medicine, all agree that Mold Fine Particulate are dangerous to human health.
“exposure to aerosolized ultrafine and fine particulates can result in translocation of these materials to the brain and elicit transient, irreversible, or progressive damage to the nervous system. Due to their unique physico-chemical properties, nano-sized materials can aerosolize during manufacturing, handling or recycling, and thus inhalation exposure is of major occupational concern.”
NIOSH 927ZBDH - Occupational exposures and potential neurological risks
Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between short-term increases in particulate matter (PM) air pollution and increased daily mortality and morbidity from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Although these studies suggest that persons with preexisting disease are most susceptible to the effects of small increases in PM
Biological Mechanisms. We have conducted exposure studies designed to elucidate the biological mechanisms whereby Fine Particulate Matter can induce adverse health effects. Results from a series of human and animal studies showed that exposures were linked to changes in heart rate variability (HRV), arrhythmias, pulmonary inflammation and vascular dysfunction (Adamkiewicz, et al., 2004; Clancy, et al., 2002; Clarke, et al., 2000; Goodman, et al., 2004; Peters, et al., 2001).
Based on results from human and animal studies, airborne nanoparticles can be inhaled and deposit in the respiratory tract; and based on animal studies, nanoparticles can enter the blood stream, and translocate to other organs. Studies in workers exposed to aerosols of some manufactured or incidental microscopic (fine) and nanoscale (ultrafine) particles have reported adverse lung effects including lung function decrements and obstructive and fibrotic lung diseases.